Ebola virus disease (EVD) or Ebola hemorrhagic fever ( EHF ) is
the human disease caused by ebola viruses . Symptoms start
two days to three weeks after contracting the virus with a fever ,
throat and muscle pains, and headaches . There is then nausea ,
vomiting and diarrhea along with decreased functioning of the
liver and kidneys . At this point some people begin to have
problems with bleeding .
The disease is first acquired by a population when a person
comes into contact with the blood or bodily fluids of an infected
animal such as a monkey or fruit bat . Fruit bats are believed to
carry and spread the disease without being affected by it. Once
infection occurs, the disease may be spread from one person to
another. Men who survive may be able to transmit the disease
sexually for nearly two months.
To make the diagnosis, typically other diseases with similar symptoms such as malaria , cholera and other viral hemorrhagic fever are excluded. The blood may then be tested for either antibodies to the virus, the viral DNA, or the virus itself to confirm the diagnosis.
Prevention involves decreasing the spread of the disease from infected monkeys and pigs to humans. This may be done by
checking these animals for infection and killing and properly
disposing of the bodies if the disease is discovered.
Properly cooking meat and wearing protective clothing when handling
meat may be helpful, as may wearing protective clothing and
washing hands when around someone sick with the disease.
Samples from people with the disease should be handled with
an extra degree of caution. THERE IS NO CURE FOR EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE, follow this prevention tips:
1. Avoid bush meat or any meat you are not sure of its source.
2. Wash your hands frequently with detergent or soap using clean
3. Avoid trips to Ebola endemic countries (DRC ,UGANDA , CONGO,
GABON SUDAN etc) now in Lagos,Nigeria.
4. Get a hand sanitizer for people to use in your office and educate
them on the importance of sanitizers, Get one for your kids to use
in school frequently and if possible for their class.
5. Avoid buying Food stuffs, Clothing or other personal materials
from Markets/Shops that share the same vicinity with live or
roasted bush meat, dealer’s or sellers
6. Be careful with hands when using railings on the stairs, door
knobs and other utilities used by the public.
7. Gloves and other appropriate protective clothing should be worn
when handling sick animals or their tissues
8. Watch out for people with flu-like symptoms and sudden fever
9. Avoid Pig farms, Pig farms in Africa play a role in the
amplification of infection because of the presence of fruit bats on
10. Avoid bat meats and bat products
PREVENTION FOR HEALTH WORKERS
WHO states as follows,
Standard precautions are recommended in the care and treatment
of all patients regardless of their perceived or confirmed infectious
status. They include the basic level of infection control—hand
hygiene, use of personal protective equipment to avoid direct
contact with blood and body fluids, prevention of needle stick and
injuries from other sharp instruments, and a set of environmental
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Manifestation of Ebola begins abruptly with a sudden onset of
an influenza -like stage characterized by general malaise , fever
with chills, sore throat, severe headache, weakness, joint pain,
muscle pain, and chest pain.
Respiratory tract involvement is characterized by pharyngitis with sore throat, cough, dyspnea , and hiccups. The central nervous system is affected as judged by the development of severe headaches, agitation , confusion, fatigue , depression , seizures , and sometimes coma .
Cutaneous presentation may include: maculopapular rash, petechiae, purpura, ecchymoses, and hematomas (especially around needle injection sites). In general, development of hemorrhagic symptoms is indicative of a negative prognosis.
However, contrary to popular belief, hemorrhage does not lead
to hypovolemia and is not the cause of death (total blood loss is
low except during labor ). Instead, death occurs due to multiple
organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) due to fluid redistribution,
hypotension , disseminated intravascular coagulation , and focal
tissue necroses .
The average time between contracting the infection and the
onset of symptoms is 13 days, but can be as long as 25 days.
Human-to-human transmission occurs via direct contact with blood or bodily fluids from an infected person (including embalming of an infected dead person) or by contact with contaminated medical equipment such as needles.